Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exosome Therapy and Bioregulation
Circulating microvesicles, called exosomes, are small membrane enclosed structures that are released into the extracellular space that typically are only 30 to 100 nanometers in diameter. Exosomes are secreted by many cell types, such as B and T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, mast cells, platelets and tumor cells and are found in most bodily fluids such as blood, urine, cerebrospinal liquid, breast milk and saliva.
Exosomes are generated through invagination of the cellular membrane and then released through exocytosis. Cells can also shed portions of their membrane to generate circulating microvesicles that are typically larger and more variable in size than exosomes. Once released from the cell exosomes, can be detected in body fluids including urine and the blood. Each exosome contains proteins and RNAs that are representative of its cell of origin, including surface and cytoplasmic proteins, messenger RNA and micro RNAs. It is also known that exosomes can transfer their contents to other cells. A process that is thought to be important to several biological regulatory processes, including immune response, intercellular communication and transport, metastasis, angiogenesis and cellular survival.
In short, exosomes are extracellular vesicles and are generally hypothesized to be intercellular communication vehicles and function to transfer lipids, nucleic acids (messenger- RNAs and micro-RNAs) and proteins between cells to elicit biological responses in recipient cells. There has been an exponential increase in the number of exosome-related publications over the last several years.
Therapeutically, mesenchymal stem cell exosomes are tiny molecules of micro-RNA that are ultra-concentrated and can exert dynamic healing inside the body. Mesenchymal stem exosomes are therapeutically administered through injection. Mesenchymal stem cell exosomes injections are considered safer than other forms of stem cell therapy. They are smaller than a cell and exert all the beneficial effects of stem cell therapy but are not delayed in their bioregulation process. In other words, you do not have to wait for their effect. Also, there is no foreign DNA, there is no use of a preservative to freeze it that might cause an allergic reaction, it is sterile, and it is safe to use in more than one location. Exosomes can be injected into a joint or around a nerve, injected into the spine or CSF, applied to a facial, or even infused intravenously or intrathecally to influence neurologic or immunologic disorders that previously could not be treated with former stem cell therapies.
Beneficial uses of mesenchymal stem cell exosomes include (but are not limited to):
chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases; chronic fatigue syndrome
neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, chronic demyelinating inflammatory neuropathies, etc (exosomes penetrate through the blood brain barrier)
acute and chronic tendinitis and tendinosis
muscle fatigue and muscle weakness
coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure
chronic hepatitis and other liver diseases
chronic kidney diseases