Science itself is constantly improving, and our understanding of the connection between the world and the law is constantly improving. For what we can’t recognize and say unclear for the time being, we can’t easily negate it because we don’t understand it. Just as we still can’t explain what the essence of the meridian is, what its anatomy is, but we can’t deny it. Traditional Chinese medicine acupuncture is a treasure house, its effectiveness cannot be denied, its scientific nature is worthy of my generation to continue to use the scientific and technological tools that are now available to understand it.”

– Ji-Sheng Han, M.D.




Professor Ji-Sheng Han, 

Acupuncture researcher extraordinaire

Professor Han was born in 1928 in Xiaoshan, a district of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province. In 1952, he graduated from the Shanghai Medical College (M.D.) and specialized as a physiologist at Dalian Medical College (1953). He later taught at Harbin Medical University (1953) and Beijing College of Traditional Chinese Medicine (1961). He currently is the Director of the Neuroscience Research Institute at Beijing University.

Professor Han is the founder and Honorary President of the Chinese Association for the Study of Pain (CASP – the Chinese chapter of IASP – the International Association for the Study of Pain); founder of the Beijing Society for Neuroscience; and Co-founder and Deputy President of the Chinese Society for Neuroscience.

Professor Han was elected academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1993. He also founded the Chinese Journal of Pain Medicine in 1995, a monthly journal in Chinese with English abstracts.

Now, at the age of 90, he continues his research, lectures and writing.

Acupuncture and electroacupuncture as complementary and alternative medicine have been accepted worldwide mainly for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. The exploration of the physiological mechanism of acupuncture started around 1950, during which time a pharmacological study was published at Peking University. The study demonstrated that an induction time of 15 to 20 minutes is required for the development of analgesic effects and that chemical substances are involved in the analgesic manifestations. The pharmaceutical study pointed to the Endogenous Opioid Peptides as major candidates for a role in acupuncture’s action, as Electro-Acupuncture Analgesia is antagonized by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone.

Acupuncture excites receptors or nerve fibers in the stimulated tissue which are also physiologically activated by strong muscle contractions, and the effects on certain organ functions are like those obtained by protracted exercise. Both exercise and acupuncture produce rhythmic discharges in nerve fibers, and cause the release of endogenous
neurotransmitters including opioids, monoamines,
oxytocin and other neuropeptides – substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), galanin (GAL), corticoliberin (CRF), Neuropeptide Y(NPY) – important in the control of both sensory, affective and cognitive elements of pain.

Professor Han has been engaged in the research of basic mechanisms of acupuncture therapy and anesthesia since 1965. After a thorough investigation of the phenomena of acupuncture-induced analgesia in humans and in animal models, he started to study its neurochemical mechanisms. Professor Han was the first to describe the time-space distribution pattern of acupuncture analgesia on the human body. He further discovered that serotonin and opioid peptides (endorphins and dynorphins) are the two main chemical substances mediating acupuncture analgesic effect.

Electro-Acupuncture Analgesia (EAA) in human subjects has been shown to have incremental effect in Endogenous Opioid Peptides (EOPs) in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid. Professor Han’s Peking University research demonstrated a frequency dependent involvement of different EOPs in electro-acupuncture (EA) induced analgesia. This was accomplished by using varied methodologies to identify the different opioid receptors and their endogenous agonists. Based on several lines of evidence, it was concluded that low-frequency (2 Hz) EAA is induced by the activation of mu- and delta-opioid receptors via the release of enkephalin, beta-endorphin, and endomorphin in supraspinal CNS regions, whereas the effects of high-frequency (100 Hz) EAA involve the actions of dynorphin on kappa opioid receptors in the spinal cord. A combination of the two frequencies produces a simultaneous release of all four opioid peptides, resulting in a maximal therapeutic effect.

This finding has been verified in clinical studies in patients with various kinds of chronic pain including lower back pain and diabetic neuropathic pain.
He also found that each mediator has its counterpart playing an opposite role to keep a physiologic balance. For example, nor-epinephrine in the brain works against serotonin in terms of pain control, whereas the neuropeptide known as cholecystokinin (CCK) shows an anti-opioid effect in the whole central nervous system. He was the first to find the functional balance between opioid peptides and the anti-opioid peptides (CCK and some other peptides with anti-opioid activity) that determines the efficacy of acupuncture analgesia in different individuals. These findings coincide with the traditional Chinese medicine philosophy of Yin and Yang balance.

Professor Han also found that the analgesic effect after acupuncture is not immediately apparent – that it takes about 20 to 30 minutes to achieve the best effect. After needles are removed, the anesthetic effect will not disappear immediately, but will slowly decline. In clinical practice, general acupuncture anesthesia is given an “induction time” for half an hour before surgery can be started.







In his attempt to find the most efficacious method for stimulation of acupuncture points, Professor Han compared the effects induced by manual twisting of the needle (manual needling) with electrical stimulation via the inserted needles (electroacupuncture, EA), and electrical stimulation via skin pads placed on top of the acupoints (transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation).

He discovered that the most important determinant of acupuncture effect is the frequency of impulses transmitted along the nerve fibers from periphery to central nervous system. Signals of different frequencies can induce the release of different kinds of chemical mediators. This led to the hypothesis of “frequency-dependent release of neuropeptides in central nervous system”. Further studies revealed that signals induced by low- and high- frequency peripheral stimulations are transmitted along different neural pathways.

These findings resulted in the design and manufacturing of a device named “Han’s acupoint nerve stimulator” (HANS), which has been used extensively for treatment of both acute and chronic pain. The main points of these discoveries have been summarized in a recent article entitled Acupuncture: neuropeptide release produced by electrical stimulation of different frequencies published in the January issue of 2003 of Trends in Neuroscience (26:17-22).

In recent years, Professor Han has researched acupuncture in the treatment of opioid (heroin) addiction using the HANS device. His research has shown that for acute opioid withdrawal, HANS can effectively control 90% of the withdrawal symptoms. HANS treatment not only helps with withdrawal symptoms, but also is used to reduce or eliminate the craving for opioids.

According to this protocol, after the completion of a detoxification program, the patient is discharged with a pocket-sized portable electrical HANS device. The patient is instructed to perform self-treatment with the device whenever craving occurs.

Usually, within 20 minutes, the craving either disappears or dramatically diminishes, and one can continue normal life without the threat of going back to opioids. The success rate of staying opiate free for more than one year without any pharmacological interventions has reached 20%.

These results have been presented in a chapter by Professor Han in the 4th edition of the text Substance Abuse edited by Joyce Lowinson et al, published by Williams and Wilkins in 2004.

With the advent of more and more breakthroughs in medical imaging and medical sciences in general, the understanding of the involvement of acupuncture in modern medical practice will undoubtedly become more and more evident. Professor Han has given acupuncture the scientific validation it needed to hold a place in conventional medicine.








Since 1979, Professor Han has been invited to lecture at more than 100 universities and institutions in 26 countries, including: UCSF, Stanford, Washington University, Duke University, NYU, Rockefeller, Harvard, NIH, NIMH, University of Toronto, Karolinska Institutet, University of London, Max-Planck Institute (Munich), Heidelberg University, and the University of Milan.

Professor Han was the plenary speaker at the 12th International Congress of Pharmacology, Montreal, 1994, and at the first Joint Meeting of US-China Academy of Sciences, and Chairman and speaker of the “Acupuncture” session in the IBRO world Congress of Neuroscience held in Jerusalem, 1999. He was the first speaker on acupuncture mechanisms in the 1997 Historical Consensus Conference on “Acupuncture” sponsored by the National Institute of Health, USA.

 Professor Han has received numerous awards for his research in acupuncture physiology. Most notably, in 2014, Professor Han was awarded the “The Second Cheung On Tak International Award for Outstanding Contribution to Chinese Medicine,” by School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU). This award was established in 2011 to recognize scholars who have made great contributions towards the internationalization or groundbreaking research of Chinese medicine. The award provides one or two winners with HK $500,000 in prize money every two years in order to promote modernization and internalization of Chinese medicine. Prof. Han donated his prize money to further develop the Chinese Journal of Pain Medicine.

Professor Han has been supported by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), NIH, USA for the study of Neurobiology of Acupuncture Analgesia for 13 consecutive years, and by the National Natural Science Foundation and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China. A recent grant from the NIH is a central grant applied jointly with the Harvard Medical School on research using acupuncture for the treatment of cocaine addiction (2005-2009).

His research activities have been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC), the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China.





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Professor Han is the editor-in-chief of two journals: Progress in Physiological Sciences (1986-) and Chinese Journal of Pain Medicine (1995-).

Professor Han has published over 400 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 7 books, including:

  • Essentials of Neuroscience, 962pp, 1993; (in Chinese);

  • Principles of Neuroscience, 1171pp, 1999 (in Chinese);

  • The Neurochemical Basis of Pain Relief by Acupuncture, vol. 1, 597pp, 1987 (in English);

  • The Neurochemical Basis of Pain Relief by Acupuncture, vol.2, 783pp, 1998 (in English);

  • Mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia, 255 pp, 1999 (in Chinese).


  • Han JS, Terenius L. Neurochemical basis of acupuncture analgesia. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 1982; 22:193-220.

  • Han JS. Central Neurotransmitters and Acupuncture Analgesia. In: B Pomeranz, G Stux (Editors), Scientific Bases of Acupuncture, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, London, Paris and Tokyo., 1988, pp 7-34.

  • Han JS, Wang J. Mobilization of specific neuropeptides by peripheral stimulation of identified frequencies. News Physiological Sciences (USA) 1992; 7:176-180.

  • Han JS. The role of CCK in acupuncture analgesia and acupuncture tolerance. In: Multiple CCK Receptors in the CNS (Eds: Dourish, Cooper, Iversen, Iversen), Oxford, New York, 1992, pp 480-502.

  • Han JS. Acupuncture and stimulation-induced analgesia. In: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol 104. OPIODS (Ed. A Herz) Chapter 35, Springer, 1993, pp 105-125.

  • Han JS. Molecular events underlying the anti-opioid effect of CCK-8 in the CNS. In: Pharmacological Sciences: Perspectives for Research and Therapy in the Late 1990s. (Eds: Cuello, Collier) Birckhauser, Basel, 1995; pp 199-207.

  • Han JS. Acupuncture activates endogenous system of analgesia. In: NIH consensus Development Conference on Acupuncture, Nov 3-5, 1997, pp 55-60.

  • Han JS. Physiology of acupuncture: Review of thirty years of research. J Altern Complem Med 1997; 3 (Suppl): 101-108.

  • Ulett G, Han S, Han JS. Electroacupuncture: mechanisms and clinical application. Biol Psychiatry. 1998 Jul 15;44(2):129-38. Review.

  • Han JS. Mechanisms of Acupuncture Analgesia. Shanghai Press of Science and Technology, Shanghai China, 1999, pp 1-255 (in Chinese).

  • Han JS. Opioid and anti-opioid peptides: A model of Yin-Yang balance in acupuncture mechanisms of pain modulation. In: G. Stux, R Hammerschlag (Editors), Clinical Acupuncture, Scientific Basis, Springer: Berlin and Heidelberg 2001, pp 51-68.

  • Han JS. Acupuncture: Frequency dependent release of neurpeptides in CNS. Trends in Neuroscience, 2003, 26: 17-22.

  • Han JS. Acupuncture, Chapter 49 of the, A Comprehensive Textbook, Eds. J Lowinson et al. 4th edition, 2005, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp.743-762.


  • Research Group of Acupuncture anesthesia, Beijing Medical College: The role of some neurotransmitters of brain in acupuncture analgesia. Scientia Sinica 1974; 17:112-130.

  • Han JS, et al. The role of central catecholamine in acupuncture analgesia. Chin Med J. 1979; 92(11):793-800.

  • Zhou ZF et al. Effect of intracerebral microinjection of naloxone on acupuncture- and morphine-analgesia in the rabbit. Scientia Sinica. 1981; 24(8):1166-78.

  • Han JS, et al. Tolerance to acupuncture and its cross tolerance to morphine. Neuropharmacology 1981; 20:593-596.

  • Han JS, et al. Acupuncture has an analgesia effect in rabbits. Pain 1983; 15:83-91.

  • Han JS, et al. Dynorphin: Important mediator for electroacupuncture analgesia in the spinal cord of the rabbit. Pain 1984; 18:367-376.

  • Han JS, et al. Acupuncture mechanisms in rabbits studied with microinjection of antibodies against beta-endorphin, enkephalin and substance P. Neuropharmacology 1984; 23:1-5.

  • Han JS. Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7-like immunoreactive substances mediate electroacupuncture analgesia in the periaqueductal gray of the rabbit. Brain Res. 1984 Nov 26;322(2):289-96.

  • Han JS. Is cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) a candidate for endogenous anti-opioid substrates? Neuropeptides. 1985 Feb;5(4-6):399-402.

  • Han JS. Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8): antagonism to electroacupuncture analgesia and a possible role in electroacupuncture tolerance. Pain. 1986 Oct;27(1):101-15.

  • Xuan YT, et al. Studies on the mesolimbic loop of antinociception-II. A serotonin-enkephalin interaction in the nucleus accumbens. Neuroscience 1986; 19: 403-409.

  • Han JS. A mesolimbic neuronal loop of analgesia. Adv Pain Res Ther 1987; 10:219-243.

  • Li Y, Han JS. CCK-8 antagonizes morphine analgesia in periaqueductal gray of the rat. Brain Res 1989; 480:105-110.

  • Wang Q, et al. Characterization of inhibition of spinal nociceptive reflex by stimulation of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in the pentobarbital anesthetized rat. Pain 1990:41:101-108.

  • Wang Q, et al. Diencephalon as a cardinal neural structure for mediating 1 Hz- but not 100 Hz- electroacupuncture-induced tail flick reflex suppression. Beh Brain Res 1990; 37:149-156.

  • Wan Q, et al. Analgesic electrical stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus: tolerance and its cross-tolerance to 2 Hz or 100 Hz electroacupuncture. Brain Res. 1990 Jun 4;518(1-2):40-6.

  • Wang Q et al. Lumbar intrathecal administration of naloxone antagonizes analgesia produced by electrical stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in pentobarbital anesthetized rats. Neuropharmacology 1990; 29:1123-1129.

  • Wang XJ, Han JS. Modification by CCK-8 of the binding of mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors. J Neurochem 1990; 55:1379-1382.

  • Wang XJ, Han JS. CCK-8 antagonized opioid analgesia mediated by mu and kappa but not delta receptors in the spinal cord of the rat. Brain Res 1990; 523:5-10.

  • Han JS, et al. Effect of low- and high-frequency TENS on met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe and dynorphin A immunoreactivity in human CSF. Pain 1991; 47:295-298.

  • Han JS, Ren MF. The importance of monitoring tail skin temperature in measuring tail flick latency. Pain 1991; 46:117.

  • Ma QP, Han jS. Neurochemical studies on the mesolimbic circuitry of antinociception. Brain Res 1991; 566:95-102.

  • Chen XH, Han JS. All three types of opioid receptors in the spinal cord are important for 2/15 Hz electroacupuncture analgesia. Eur J Pharmacol. 1992 Feb 11;211(2):203-10.

  • Chen XH, Han JS. All three types of opioid receptors are important for 2/15 Hz electroaupuncture analgesia. Eur J Pharmacol 1992; 211:203-210.

  • Chen XH, Han JS. Analgesia induced by electroacupuncture of different frequencies is mediated by different types of opioid receptors: another cross tolerance study. Beh Brain Res 1992; 47:143-149.

  • Zhang LJ et al. Influence of CCK-8 on phosphoinositide turnover in neonatal rat brain cells. Biochem J 1992; 285:487-850.

  • Wang JF, et al. Mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores as one of the mechanisms underlying the antiopioid effect of CCK-8. Peptides 1992; 13:947-951.

  • Zhou Y, et al. Increased release of immunoreactive CCK-8 by morphine and potentiation of opioid analgesia by CCK-B receptor antagonist L-365260 in rat spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol 1993; 234:147-154.

  • Han JS, Zhang RL. Suppression of morphine abstinence syndrome by body electroacupuncture of different frequencies in rats. Drug Alcohol Dependence 1993; 31:169-175.

  • Han JS, et al: Heroin addicts treated with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation of identified frequencies. Regulatory Peptides 1994; 54:115-116.

  • Xu W, et al. Spinal serotonin 1A and 1C/2 receptors mediate supraspinal mu-opioid-induced analgesia. NeuroReport 1994; 5:2665-2668.

  • Xu W, et al. Serotonin receptor subtypes in spinal antinociception in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1994; 269:1182-1189.

  • Zhang LJ, et al. Regulation by lithium of the antagonistic effect of CCK-8 on ohmefentanyl-induced antinociception. Neurophamacology 1994; 33:123-126.

  • Liu NJ, et al. CCK-8 reverses mu-opiod receptor-mediated inhibition of calcium current in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 275:1293-1299.

  • Guo HF, et al. Brain substrates activated by electroacupuncture of different frequencies (I) Comparative study on the expression of oncogene c-fos and genes coding for the three opioid peptides. Mol Brain Res 1996; 43:157-166.

  • Guo HF, et al. Brain substrates activated by electroacupuncture of different frequencies (II) Role of Fos/Jun proteins in the EA-induced transcription of preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin genes. Mol Brain Res 1996; 43:167-173.

  • Xu T, et al. CCK-8 reverses the kappa-opioid receptor mediated depression of calcium current in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Brain Res 1996; 730:207-211.

  • Han JS. Cholecystkinin (CCK): Negative feedback control for opioid analgesia. Beh Brain Science 1997; 20:451.

  • Tang NM, et al. CCK antisense RNA increases the analgesic effect induced by electroaupuncture or low dose morphine: Conversion of low responder rats into high responders. Pain 1997; 71:71-80.

  • Tian JH, et al. Bidirectional modulatory effect of orphanin FQ on morphine-induced analgesia: antagonism in brain and potentiation in spinal cord of the rat. Br J Pharmacol 1997: 120:676-680.

  • Tian JH, et al. Involvement of endogenous Orphanin FQ in electroacupuncture induced analgesia. Neuroreport 1997; 8:497-500.

  • Zhang LX, et al. Rats with decreased brain CCK levels show increased responsiveness to peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia. Brain Res 1997; 745:158-164.

  • Zhang M, et al. OFQ reverses the kappa opioid receptor-mediated depression of calcium current in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Neuroreport 1998; 9:2095-2098.

  • Tian JH, et al. Endogenous orphanin FQ: evidence for a role in the modulation of electroacupuncture analgesia and the development of tolerance to analgesia produced by morphine and electroacupuncture. Brit J Pharmacol 1998; 124:21-26.

  • Han Z, et al: Endomorphin-1 mediates 2 Hz but not 100 Hz electroacupuncture analgesia in the rat. Neurosc Lett 1999; 274:75-78.

  • Wang XM, et al. Acute intermittent morphine increases preprodynorphin and kappa opioid receptor mRNA level in the rat brain. Mol Brain Res 1999; 66:164-167.

  • Wu LZ, et al. Suppression of morphine withdrawal by electroacupuncture in rats: dynorphin and kappa-opioid receptor implicated. Brain Res 1999, 851:290-296.

  • Yuan L, et al. Accelerated release and production of orphanin FQ in brain of chronic morphine tolerant rats. Brain Res 1999; 826:330-334.

  • Zhao CS, et al. Nocistatin reverses the effect of orphanin FQ/nociceptin in antagonizing morphine analgesia. Neuroreport 1999; 10:297-299.

  • Cui CL, et al.. Spinal kappa-opioid system plays an important role in suppressing morphine withdrawal in the rat. Neurosc Lett 2000, 295:45-48.

  • Fang M, et al. Decreased GDNF mRNA expression in dorsal spinal cord of unilateral arthritic rat. Neuroreport 2000; 11:737-741.

  • Han NL, et al.. Synergistic effect of CCK and angiotensin II in reversal of morphine induced analgesia in rats. Pain 2000; 85:465-469.

  • Huang C, et al. Endomorphin and mu-opioid receptors in mouse brain mediate the analgesic effect induced by 2 Hz, but not 100 Hz EA stimulation. Neurosc Lett 2000; 294:159-162.

  • Ma DD, et al. NIH 3T3 cells or engineered NIH 3T3 cells stably expressing GDNF can protect primary dopaminergic neurons. Neurol Res 2000, 22:538-544.

  • Tian JH, Han JS. Functional studies using antibodies against OFQ/nociceptin. Peptides 2000, 21:1047-50.

  • Wang B, et al. Peripheral electric stimulation inhibit morphine-induced place preference in rats. Neuroreport 2000; 11:1017-1020.

  • Wang B,et al. Stress or drug priming induces reinstatement of extinguished conditioned place preference. NeuroReport 2000, 11:2781-84.

  • Wang Y, et al. Repeated administration of low dose ketamine for the treatment of monoarthritic pain in the rat. Life Sci 2000; 67:261-267.

  • Chen ZW, et al. The metabolic evidence of synergistic effect between ohmefentanym and [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin on differentiated SH-SY5Y cells in humans. Neuroscience Lett 2001; 298:199-202.

  • Chen ZW, et al. The metabolic evidence of synergistic interaction between DAMGO and DPDPE on undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells. NeuroReport 2001;12:845-849.

  • Sun RQ, et al. Changes in brain content of nociceptin/orphanin FQ and endomorphin 2 in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Neurosci Lett, 2001; 311:13-16.

  • Sun RQ, Zhao CS, Wang HJ, Jing Z, Wang W, Yang K, Wang Y, Chang JK, Han JS. Nocistatin, a peptide that reverses acute and chronic morphine tolerance. NeuroReport, 2001, 12: 1789-1792.

  • Wang Y, Wang XM, Han JS. Discrimination between peptide and non-peptide agonists on the transcription of opioid receptors in two cell lines. Life Science 2001; 68:2731-2740.

  • Wan Y, Wilson SG, Han JS. The effect of genotype on sensitivity to electroacupuncture analgesia. Pain 2001; 91:5-13.

  • Ren YH, Wang B, Luo F, Cui CL, Zheng JW, Han JS. Peripheral electric stimulation attenuates the expression of cocaine-induced place preference in rats. Brain Research.2002; 957: 129-135.

  • Wang B, Luo F, Ge XC, Fu AH, Han JS. Effects of lesions of various brain areas on drug priming or footshock-induced reactivation of extinguished conditioned place preference. Brain Research 2002; 950:1-959.

  • Fang M, Wang Y, He QH, Sun YX, Deng LB, Wang XM, Han JS. Glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor contributes to delayed inflammatory hyperalfesia in adjuvant rat pain model. Neuroscience, 2003;117: 503-512.

  • Shi XD, Ren XW, Wang GB, Luo F, Han JS, Cui CL. Brain opioid-receptors are involved in mediating peripheral electrical stimulation –induced inhibition of morphine conditioned place preference in rats. Brain Research 2003; 981:23-29.

  • Zhang WT, Jin Z, Cui GH, Zhang KL, Zhang L, Zeng YW, Luo F, Chen CAN, Han JS. Relations between brain network activation and analgesic effect induced by low versus high frequency electrical acupoint stimulation in different subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Brain Res 2003; 982:168-178.

  • Zhang WT, Jin Z, Huang J, Zhang L, Zeng YW, Luo F, Chen CAN, Han JS. Modulation of cold pain in human brain by electric acupoint stimulation: evidence from fMRI. Neuroreport 2003; 14:1591-96.

  • Han JS. Acupuncture and endorphins. Neurosc Lett 2004; 361:258-261.

  • Zhang M, Wang XM, Zhang DB, Xu GH, Dog HW, Yu YX, Han JS. Orphanin FQantagonizes the inhibition of Ca2+ currents induced by u-opioid erceptors. J Mol Neurosc 2004; 25: in press.

  • Shi XD, Wang GB, Ma YY, Ren W, Luo F, Cui CL, Han JS. Repeated peripheral electrical stimulations suppress both morphine-induced CPP and reinstatement of extinguished CPP n rats: accelerated expression of PPE and PPD mRNA in NAc implicated. Mol Brain Res 2004; 130:124-133.


  • Sjolund B, Terenius L, Ericsson M (1977) Increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of endorphins after electro-acupuncture. Acta Physiol Scand 100: 382-384. 

  • Pomeranz B, Chiu D (1976) Naloxone blockade of acupuncture analgesia: endorphin implicated. Life Sci 19: 1757-1762. 

  • (1973) Acupuncture Anesthesia. Effect of acupuncture on pain threshold of human skin. Chin Med J 3: l51-158.